Erase everything in your code box and then type the following into your program:
module Main where import Prelude luckyNumber = 74 name = "Scrooge McDuck" answer = luckyNumber + myName
Ah wait, what happened? In the above example, we told the computer to do 74 + "Scrooge McDuck". But as I'm sure you're well aware, you can't add numbers and words. This is because they aren't the same types of things. When we create variables, each one has a specific type. The type given to the variable is mostly based on the value you give it. Different types of values will have different types. Numbers will have types like
Int (as in Integer) or
Number, text will usually have the type
String. Some actions, like addition, only work when both operands are numeric types. In the above example, the compiler helps us by informing us that the types of our variables aren't right for addition.
The compiler will be your best friend when writing programs, it makes sure that the things you tell the computer to do make sense. For example, if you replace your definition of
luckyNumber with the following, the compiler will complain:
luckyNumber :: Int luckyNumber = "Hello Fred"
Oh whoa wait up now! What does this weird
luckyNumber :: Int line mean? This is called a Type Declaration, they go above the variable definition. It’s basically saying “Hey compiler, I want you to know that
luckyNumber should be an
Int. You can read the symbol
:: to mean “has the type” or “is the type”. So
luckyNumber :: Int can be literally read as “
luckyNumber has the type
Most of the time, the compiler can infer the types of your variables based on the value you give it, but often it's helpful to inform the compiler of the types you intend to use explicitly. The more often you use type declarations, the more clear error messages will be.
There's a basic set of types you will find in just about every programming language. Here's a list of our primitives in purescript:
Int is the type of non-decimal numbers, like 10 or 450
integer :: Int integer = 45
Number is the type of fractional/decimal numbers, like 3.14, or 45.734
decimal :: Number decimal = 34.5
String is the type of text
greetingMessage :: String greetingMessage = "Welcome to my glorious mansion"
Char is the type of single character text. (I dont think this type is all that useful) To create a char, you use single quotes
' instead of double
favoriteLetter :: Char favoriteLetter = 'H'
Boolean is the type to represent true and false.
areYouCool :: Boolean areYouCool = true -- I sure think so ^_^
Unit is a bit different of a type. It contains only a single value. It's sort of like a
but instead of having a
false, it only has a
true. That doesn't sound very useful!
Well the point of it is that we use it in cases when we don't care what our value is. You'll learn
more about this when we begin taking a deeper look at functions.
The single value belonging to the type
unit. Here's an example of a
uselessValue :: Unit uselessValue = unit
Void is a type which contains no values at all! You can't create a
Void because there's no
values we can use to create it. Although this is starting to sound very weird (even in comparison to
Unit), it does have some legitimate uses.
I would show an example of a
Void variable but since we can't create them, there's nothing to
show. (There is technically a way to create them, but this is too early to introduce those concepts)
There are other more complex types aside from the primitives, we'll introduce those in the up and coming chapters
A Type Declaration informs the compiler of what type you intend your variables and functions to have (We'll get to functions soon).
Type declarations go above the variable's definition.
Heres an example type declaration
coolNum :: Int -- Type declaration coolNum = 5 -- variable definition
The primitive types are
Add type declarations to the variables below
module Main where import Prelude coolNumber = 50 collegeSavings = 4000 personsName = "John Wiggly"
When you think you've got it, check what you put against the answer below
module Main where import Prelude coolNumber :: Int coolNumber = 50 collegeSavings :: Int collegeSavings = 4000 personsName :: String personsName = "John Wiggly"